PCB Design & PCB Layout

OPCBA has a PCB design team and electronic application development engineers, as well as a microcontroller program and embedded system design team. Provide customers with technical services such as smart home systems, microcontroller technology, intelligent control, embedded systems, analog-digital circuits, IoT systems, and management software design and development. We have an SMT fully automatic production line, DIP plug-in welding line, and multiple quality departments such as IQC, OQC, EQ, etc.

PCB Design & PCB Layout
PCB Design & PCB Layout

PCB design refers to the use of electronic design automation software (EDA) for circuit board design, including the design of circuit board layout and circuit connections. Circuit boards are an important component of electronic products, which can connect electronic components together and transmit signals through wires. Circuit boards are an important component of electronic products, which can connect electronic components together and transmit signals through wires. PCB design is the process of converting circuit schematics into actual circuit board layouts and connections. In the process of PCB design, it is necessary to consider requirements such as circuit performance, reliability, EMC (electromagnetic compatibility), as well as the manufacturing process and cost factors of the PCB.

Various factors such as the optimized layout of internal electronic components, the optimized layout of metal connections and through-holes, electromagnetic protection, thermal dissipation, etc. Excellent layout design can save production costs and achieve good circuit performance and heat dissipation. Simple layout design can be achieved manually, while complex layout design requires the use of computer-aided design (CAD).

PCB design, in simple terms, is the process of connecting various devices to complete their corresponding functions without interfering with each other. It is the foundation of the entire product, determining its manufacturability and operational stability. In the early stages of PCB design, attention should be paid to device layout, stacking planning, power supply segmentation, and so on. When wiring, attention should be paid to the routing width of high-speed signals and the distance from the reference ground.

PCB layout rules
1. In general, all components should be arranged on the same side of the circuit board. Only when the top layer components are too dense can some highly limited and low heat generating devices, such as SMD resistors, capacitors, ICs, etc., be placed on the bottom layer.
2. On the premise of ensuring electrical performance, components should be placed on a grid and arranged parallel or perpendicular to each other for neatness and aesthetics. In general, components are not allowed to overlap; The arrangement of components should be compact, and the components should be evenly distributed and evenly spaced throughout the entire layout.
3. The minimum spacing between adjacent solder pad shapes of different components on the circuit board should be at least 1mm.
4. The distance from the edge of the circuit board is generally not less than 2MM. The optimal shape of the circuit board is rectangular, with an aspect ratio of 3:2 or 4:3. When the surface size of the circuit board is greater than 200MM by 150MM, the mechanical strength that the circuit board can withstand should be considered.

PCB layout design
In PCB, special components refer to key components in the high-frequency part, core components in the circuit, components that are susceptible to interference, components with high voltage, components with high heat generation, and some heterosexual components. The position of these special components needs to be carefully analyzed, and the strip layout should meet the requirements of circuit function and production needs. Improper placement of them may result in circuit compatibility issues and signal integrity issues, leading to the failure of PCB design.When placing special components in the design, the first consideration is the size of the PCB. Kuaiyi Gou pointed out that when the PCB size is too large, the printing lines are long, the impedance increases, the anti-drying ability decreases, and the cost also increases; When it is too small, the heat dissipation is not good, and the adjacent lines are easily disturbed. After determining the size of the PCB, determine the square position of the special components. Finally, layout all components of the circuit according to the functional units.

PCB Design Process
PCB Design Process

The position of special components should generally follow the following principles when layout
1. Try to shorten the connection between high-frequency components as much as possible, and try to reduce their distribution parameters and electromagnetic interference with each other. Components that are susceptible to interference should not be too close to each other, and input and output should be kept as far away as possible.
2. Some components or wires may have a high potential difference, and their distance should be increased to avoid accidental short circuits caused by discharge. High-voltage components should be placed out of reach of hands as much as possible.
3. Components weighing over 15G can be fixed with brackets and then soldered. Those heavy and hot components should not be placed on the circuit board, but on the bottom plate of the main box, and heat dissipation should be considered. Thermal-sensitive components should be kept away from heating components.
4. The layout of adjustable components such as potentiometers, adjustable inductance coils, variable capacitors, microswitches, etc. should consider the structural requirements of the entire board. Some commonly used switches should be placed in a place that is easy to reach by hand if the structure allows. The layout of components should be balanced, with appropriate density, and should not be top-down.

The success of a product requires a focus on internal quality. The second is to balance the overall aesthetics. Only boards that are both perfect can become successful products.PCB design and PCB layout are tasks that require a combination of theory and practice, requiring mastery of certain circuit knowledge and design skills in order to design PCB that meet requirements and have stable and reliable performance. OPCBA has a PCB design team and electronic application development engineers, providing customers with PCB design and PCB Layout services.